Our glossary will help you to understand any terms associated with sanitary ware, tiles and wood floors.
Ceramic tiles are basically a mixture of clays that are pressed into shape and fired at high temperatures, which
gives the tile its hardness. The biscuit or body of the tile is then glazed. Ceramics are mainly used in domestic
situations however high quality ones can be used in certain commercial applications.
Porcelain tiles are made from dust pressed clays and have been fired at very high temperatures. Porcelain tiles
have a maximum absorption of <.5% and very high mechanical and chemical qualities. This process makes the tile
very hard like glass and makes the tile dense and strong. Two main types of porcelain tile are glazed porcelain and
through-bodied porcelain. Porcelain tiles have become extremely popular due to their durability, frost resistant and
These tiles are achieved by cutting or splitting rocks that have been quarried from deposits all over the world.
Natural stones are naturally occurring products that are quarried and trimmed into tile formats or special pieces.
We are familiar with five different types, although there are many more used in eastern countries. Natural stones
are basically tiles that have been cut from the earth. They have formed naturally in the earth and have their own
unique characteristics. The natural stones that are familiar to use are Slates, Sandstone, Limestone, Marble and
Granite. All natural stones suit domestic and commercial situations and can be used indoor and outdoor.
A mosaic is defined as a collection of small tiles that can be fixed by mesh, paper or wax dot onto a sheet. The
tiles can be either face or back mounted onto the supporting sheet. With face mounted sheets, the mosaics are
fixed with the sheet showing. The sheet is removed once the adhesive has dried and the mosaics are grouted.
Mosaics can be glazed ceramic, unglazed porcelain, marble or glass.
Summary Slip Rating
A professional architect, interior designer or engineer should always decide the specification required. When a customer asks for an R9-R13 floor, you can select models from our range.
Remember there are no laws either in Ireland or Europe, which state the slip resistance of any or all floors. The industry is governed by sets of standards, which are regulated by a commission,
commonly accepted and evenly applied by specifiers. We adopt the most popular method in Europe, which are the German rated ZH1/ 571-Din51130. This system divides areas
into groups depending on slippiness. The tiles are then rated against these groups and approval certificates issued. The groups start at R9 and work through to R13,
which is the most slip resistant. Slip Resistant R9:R9 rated tiles will tolerate an angled floor of 3 to 10 degrees. They can be used in areas where there are no special
risks of slipping. This is the basic requirement for any public area. R9 tiles can only be used internally and must not be liable to wetting, spillages, inclines or declines.
The benefits of using R9 over higher rated tiles are the ranges available, price and ease of cleaning.
Slip Resistant R10: R10 rated tiles will tolerate an angled floor of 10 to 19 degrees. They can be used in commercial areas which are accessible from the outside and may
have moisture carried in from outside. Use R10 on commercial floors, which are susceptible to spillages or dirt e.g. public toilets, counter areas at bars and mostly dry barefoot areas.
Slip Resistant R11: R11 rated tiles will tolerate an angled floor of 19 to 27 degrees. These tiles can be used
in many commercial and industrial applications where some degree of slip resistance is required, but must be
matched with relative ease of cleaning. R11 tiles can be used on pool decks and barefoot areas, which are regularly wet. R11 Tiles that are suitable for barefoot areas are denoted by a scale
of water that can be held on the surface of the tile without affecting it’s grip. The scale is A, B or C, with R11 C being the bigger volume tile and therefore the most tolerant of residual surface water.
R11 is the minimum rating for outdoor use e.g. patios, doorways, steps and shopping malls. R11 is required for commercial kitchens up to 100 meals per day.
Slip Resistant R13: R13 tiles will tolerate an angled floor of 35 degrees and greater. These tiles will only be required in the most demanding production areas such as fish processing and butchering.
The animal fats likely to be present on the floor demand the extra slip resistance associated with these tiles.
Basin & Full Pedestal
This is where the basin sits on a full sized pedestal. Normally the waste pipes & the hot or cold water pipes run behind the pedestal into the floor.
Basin & Semi Pedestal
The basin sits on a half-height pedestal which does not reach the floor. The pipe work for this type of basin needs to project out from the wall.
These are very small basins for hand washing and are usually fitted without a pedestal. These basins are usually wall hung and fitted with a bottle trap.
Counter Top Basin
This basin is free-standing & sits on top of a worktop
This basin is fitted under the hole on the worktop. This means that the worktop has to be a solid surface material such as marble or stone.
A semi-recessed basin is fitted into a worktop. It has a bow in the front to sit over the worktop and the underside has been cut away to make a neat fit.
This basin sits into a hole within a work top but has a rim that sits over the worktop/basin join.
Acrylic is the most common material used in the production of baths as it insulates well and can produce great shapes.
There are two types of corner bath - equal sided where both sides are the same length & offset, where one side is longer than the other. These can come with a screen to be used as a shower bath or without the screen for a relaxing bathing experience.
Double-Ended Rectangular Baths
This type of bath has the taps & waste in the middle of the bath. Each end of this bath is sloped.
These baths have a larger area at one end to allow more room for showering. They are usually supplied with a bath screen that is designed for the bath.
Single-Ended Rectangular Baths
This style of bath has the taps & waste at one end & is ideal for one person to bathe in as there is generally a gentle slope at one end which offers good back support when relaxing.
Basin Mono Tap
This is where the hot & cold feeds are combined in a single mixer tap. The same handle will control on/ off and hot/ cold.
Basin Pillar Taps
This is a pair of taps where you have a separate hot & cold tap on the basin with the cold tap usually on the right and the hot on the left.
This type of tap has the hot & cold water feeds combined into one mixer block. The advantage of this type of tap is that you can mix the water to the desired temperature whilst the bath is filling.
Bath Pillar Taps
A pair of bath taps; one for hot & one for cold. The cold tap is normally on the right & the hot on the left.
Bath Shower Mixer Tap
This is the same as a bath filler but has a shower hose & handset attached. These types of showers are designed for washing hair or rinsing the bath; not for standing & showering under.
One Tap Hole Basin
This type of basin uses a basin mono tap. The water is controlled either by a lever on the tap or a separate hot & cold handle on either side of the spout.
Two Tap Hole Basin
This basin requires a pair of basin taps where there is a separate tap for the hot & cold.
Back to Wall Toilet
This type of toilet is generally used with fitted furniture. The cistern is concealed within the wall or furniture but the pan is mounted on the floor so does not require a fixing frame. This type of toilet is very popular due to its ease of cleaning and the minimum impact it has on the room.
The ceramic or plastic vessel that stores the water necessary for flushing a toilet.
Close-Coupled is the most common type of toilet and is where the cistern attaches directly to the pan. This type of toilet is easily maintained as all working parts are easily accessible.
A cistern that is hidden from view behind a false wall.
A Dual-Flush toilet has two flushing strengths – low and high.
High Level Toilet
This type of product was popular in the Victorian era & is most closely associated with older homes & traditional bathrooms. The pan is freestanding & the cistern sits on the wall approximately 1800mm or 6 feet up the wall. The cistern has a chain pull flush.
Low Level Toilet
This type of toilet is generally of a more traditional design. It consists of a freestanding pan and a cistern which sit approx 900mm or 36inches up the wall with a short flush pipe between to two pieces.
Also known as the toilet bowl or w/c.
Wall Hung Toilet
This type of toilet has the toilet hanging on the wall & the cistern concealed in the wall behind it. The pan must be properly supported by a fixing frame. A wall hung toilet is popular as it allows ease of cleaning and as the toilet pan is the only visible part, it minimises the impact of the toilet of the design of the room.
Used on free-standing baths to cover the pipe work connecting to the bath taps.
The overflow is a hole on the back of the basin or bath that allows the drainage of excess water.
Plug & Chain Waste
This is the most traditional type of waste. A plug is attached to a link chain which is attached to the overflow.
An alternative to the traditional plugs, a pop-up waste comprises of a stopper connected by levers to a control knob. When the knob is pushed/ turned the stopper is lifted to allow water to drain away.
Sprung Waste/ Click Clack Waste
A fitted alternative to a plug that you touch and click the waste to drain the water.
Standpipes are used with free-standing baths that have no tap holes. Water flows through the stand pipes and into the bath taps.
Our water pressure key helps explain the water pressure required to operate certain taps & showers:
LP1 – 0.1 bar pressure minimum required.
LP2 – 0.2 bar pressure minimum required.
MP – 0.5 bar pressure minimum required.
HP1 – 1 bar pressure minimum required.
HP2 – 2 bar pressure minimum required.
Laminate: Laminate wood flooring is a multi-layer synthetic flooring product fused together with a lamination process. Intense pressure, heat and resins fuse the layers together forming the finished board with its lovely texture, design and colour.
Semi-solid: Semi-Solid engineered floors represent a combination between the beautiful and distinguished appearance of wooden floors and the versatility and stability of laminates since they are made up of special components and have a real wood top layer of 3 to 4 mm approx.
Engineered wood: ‘Strata’ or layers of wood, are bonded together to create these lovely looking engineered floors. Strata features a hardwood layer in a selection of species supported by either a cross battened softwood or plywood base board.
Solid wood: Pure solid wood with the inherent beauty of natural timber. Sawn, finished with lacquer and profiled ready for installation. Solid wood collections are always installed by nailing, controlled floating on Elastilon or direct adhesion.
Underlay: Underlay is rolls of foam that is laid underneath timber flooring. Used for laminate, engineered and solid wood floors, underlay has fantastic noise cancelling properties and can be used in most wood flooring applications as, in recent times as most floors are now floating wood floors which refers to the installation processes where they do not need to be glued or nailed to the subfloor.
Elastilon: Elastilon is an adhesive underlay suitable for underfloor Heating. The Elastilon controls movement with its elastic properties. It is 3mm solid foam. Adhesive Surface. Noise reducing properties.
Scotia: All solid wood, engineered wood and laminate flooring requires an expansion gap around the perimeter of the room. Scotia is a decorative moulding used to cover the gap without removing the skirting. You would use Scotia if you were not putting your skirting on top of the wood floor.
Skirting: Skirting or more commonly known as skirting boards, are moulding panels (generally wooden material) that are fitted between the floor and the interior wall of a structure.
Reducer: Reducers are used to bring together two different types of solid floor, making a clean and professional join between the surfaces. They are normally used when going from one room to another. Suitable for joining flooring including engineered, solid and laminate floors, tiles, and carpets.
Solid profiles: Much like a reducer, T-bar, solid profiles are made from solid wood and are used to bring together two floors of the same height, making a clean and professional join between the surfaces.
Angle edge: Solid angles are used as a stop end to finish a floor at a doorway, fireplace etc. Making a clean and professional finish. Suitable for finishing engineered, solid and laminate floors and tiles.